Artificial lighting without control is a form of pollution harmful to insects, which get disoriented in their movements and reproduce less, as Research Institute pointing a Bioscience (IB). In addition to the risk of extinction of species, the lighting also affects the vegetables with the fall in pollination.
The study also demonstrates that the adoption of filters with luminaires attract fewer insects, reducing the contact of man with the transmitters of diseases such as leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.
Guided by the stars
“The vision of insects has greater sensitivity to ultraviolet light spectrum range, using the night glow of stars to mark out your move in a straight line,” says Alessandro Barghini, an economist with a doctorate in ecology from USP and researcher at the Institute of Electrotechnics and energy (IEE), also at the University, which conducted the study.
“Artificial lighting make the insects move in turn around the fixtures, wasting time that would be used in the reproduction of the species, and causing frequent clashes with the lamps”.
Collection equipment used to measure the attraction of insects by the lights of the lamps [image: Alessandro Barghini]
The researcher points out that artificial lighting can also attract insects that transmit diseases to humans and cites the cases of contamination by Chagas ‘ disease happened in February and March 2005 in Santa Catarina.
“Mercury vapor lighting of a roadside sale was the Barber, transmitter, hiding in sugar cane used to produce garapa, causing the contagion,” he says. In total, 12 people were infected to make Sugarcane juice.
Filter effects in light bulbs
To assess the effects of light pollution on insects and figure out ways to control, the researcher used light fixtures with a sink attached. The sodium vapor lamp attracted an average of 40 insects per night, against 67 mercury lamp.
Ceiling light fixture with light filter, applied on glass sodium lamp protection, attracted only 15 bugs per night-a sink without lighting received an average of 8. “The filter reduces the exposure of ultraviolet radiation and prevents the insect Guide by light,” explains Barghini.
Diffusion of light
Another way to reduce the effects of artificial lighting is the change in the form of light.”Screens placed in luminaires, for example, makes the bug not East by the brightness of the lights,” points the researcher. “The adoption of low lighting lessens the lighted area, reducing the attraction of insects”.
Alessandro Barghini suggests that lighting control measures to be adopted by large projects and distribution of electric energy conservation, such as the Light and the Lighting efficiency program (Prolux), of the federal Government. “These initiatives should take into account the impact of the lighting, especially in peripheral areas,” he points out.”In Britain, all the light that comes out of the area that needs to be lit is considered light pollution”.
Contamination with leishmaniasis
According to the researcher, the luminaires can promote the contamination of leishmaniasis in peripheral areas of large cities. “The lights attract the bug transmitter, that parasite of dogs and chickens, which lead to disease to man,” he explains. In the case of Chagas disease, there are several studies in the scientific literature demonstrating the relationship between artificial lighting and the contagion by the Barber. “A lot is known about detection and treatment, but research little advanced in prevention and control”.
Barghini adds that the adoption of filters with luminaires, applied by metal deposition on glass lamp protection, not expensive production costs. The study is described in the PhD thesis of Barghini, presented at the Institute of Biocências (IB). The research had supervision of professor Walter Neves, of the laboratory of Human Evolutionary Studies of IB.