More and more often these days, among the many acronyms (to tell the truth sometimes a bit cryptic), feels more and more frequently the term “GPS”, but what lies behind this acronym?
The term is short for Global Positioning System GPS (Global Positioning System defined by Digo Paul), a system which utilizes a series of integrated structures can detect in all parts of our planet, the exact location of where the user of the receiver. But not only that, it also provides many other data (further explanations).
His birth took place way back in 1973 by the DoD (Department of Defence-Department of Defense) of the United States of America for military purposes, but only on 27 April 1995 the system became fully operational. For its realization the US has spent considerable sum of 12 billion dollars (by then!). To date, DoD has rights.
The system is also known as NAVSTAR (Navigation System with Time and Ranging-navigation system with time and distance) and is based on a group of 24 satellites orbiting the Earth, so that from every single point of our planet are always at least and simultaneously visible between 5 and 8 satellites traveling in six orbits in 4 groups, inclined at 55 degrees from the equator, at a height of around 20000 km and with an orbital period of about 12 hours.
Here is the pattern of how you move the “Constellation” of 24 satellites.
The satellites are a component of the integrated system: the second part of the integrated system, the control is located on the ground and is located in five key areas:
Colorado Spring, United States of America-main station or MCS (Master Control Station)
Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean
Island Diego Garcia, Indian Ocean
Haway, North Pacific Ocean
Kwajalein Atoll, South Pacific Ocean
The ground stations as well as provide for the monitoring and maintenance of satellites, send location information (the so-called “ephemeris”, that is, tables that contain calculated values, during a particular time range, and by astronomical sizes and position of other satellites of the global positioning system) and correct periodic atomic clocks that are on board each satellite is on board.
These above information are stored and transmitted to users on the ground, using the apparatus that is now readily available, and also low cost.
That’s when we use GPS tool, we see only the final part of the complex system that allows us to know our position.
In summary, the GPS system consists of three parts:
The terrestrial section, that monitors and sends information to satellites
The satellite section, where each satellite sends to Earth information about its location, the ephemeris, time and other information
The section user using a special receiver designed to process signals received from satellites, provides the location and other information.
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